Thursday, August 23, 2012





1. I have not sinned against Men.
2. I have not oppressed(or wronged) [my] kinsfolk.
3 I have not committed evil in the place of truth.
4. I have not known worthless men.
5. I have not committed act of abomination.
6. I have not done daily works of supererogation(?)
7. I have not caused my name to appear for honours.
8. I have not domineered over slaves.
9. I have not thought scorn of the god(or, God)
10. I have not defrauded the poor man of his goods.
11. I have not done the things which the gods abominate.
12. I have not caused harm to be done to the slave by his master.
13. I have not caused no man to suffer
14. I have allowed no man to go hungry.
15. I have made no man weep.                                       
16. I have slain no man.
17. I have not given the order for any man to be slain.
18. I have not caused pain to the multitude.
19. I have not filched the offerings in the the temples.
20. I have not purloined the cakes of the gods.
21. I have not stolen the offerings of the spirits.
22. I have had no dealing with the paederast.
23. I have not defiled myself in the pure places of the god of my city.
24. I have not cheated in measuring of grain.
25. I have not filched land or added thereto.
26. I have not encroached upon the field of others.
27. I have not added to the weight of the balance.
28. I have not cheated with the pointer of the scales.
29. I have not taken away milk from the mouths of babes.
30. I have not driven beasts away from their pastures.
31. I have not netted the geese of the preserves of the gods.
32. I have not caught fish with the bait of their bodies.
33. I have not obstructed water when it should run.
34. I have not cut a cutting in a canal of running water.
35. I have not extinguished a flame when it ought to burn.
36. I have not abrogated the days of offering the chosen offering.
37. I have not turned off the cattle from the property of the gods.
38. I have not repulsed the god in his manifestations.

I am pure... I am pure.. I am pure.. I am pure.

The confessions above are made when the deceased entered the Hall of Osiris, when his heart had braved the ordeal of being weighed in Balance(Maat). Social balance and spiritual balance were in tandem with the functioning and well-being of that society. The recitation of these confessions were not only done in the after-life, but on earthly life too. Egyptians always provided elaborate resting places for the deceased. They mummified the bodies which would ensure reincarnation in the body upon the soul being weighed in the Hall of judgement by Osiris, god of the Dead

Gods of the 42 Nomes
We now look at the second type of the Negative Confessions.. In this case, the deceased addressed a series of Two and forty gods by their names one after the other, and asserted before each, that he had not committed a certain sin. These gods were the forty-two nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt. He had already told Osiris that he knew their names, and proceeded to prove it by saying the following

1. Hail, Usekh - nemmet, coming forth from Anu(Heliopolis), I have not done iniquity.
2. Hail, Heprshet, coming from Kher-aha[A Large City between Fustat and Matariyah), I have not committed robbery.
3. Hail, Fenti, coming forth forth from Khemenu (hermopolis), I have not stolen with violence.
4. Hail, Am-khitabu, coming from Qerrt'(The Circle- perhaps a place in the other world), I have not committed theft.
5. Hail, Neha-hau. comng forth from Re-stau(A region in the other World of Memphis), I have not killed men.
6. Hail, Lion and Lioness god, coming forth from heaven, I have not made light the bushel of corn.
7. Hail, Merti-f-em-tes, coming froth from Sekhem(Letopolis), I have not acted deceitfully.
8. Hail, Neba, coming forth from Khetkhet, I have not robbed the property of god.
9. Hail, Set-qesu, coming forth from Suten-henen(Herakleopolis), I have not uttered falsehood.
10. Hail Uatch-Nesert, coming forth from Het-ka-Ptah(Memphis), I have not stolen food.
11. Hail, Qerti, coming forth from Ament, I have not cursed.
12. Hail, Hetch-abehu, coming forth from Ta-he(Fayyum), I have not attacked any man.
13. Hail, Am-senf, coming forth from the slaughter-house, I have not slain the cattle of god.
14. Hail, Am besek, coming forth from Mabit, I have not used deceit
15. Hail, Neb-Maat, coming forth from Maati, I have not stolen grain.
16. Hail, Thenemi, coming from Bast(Bubastis),I have not acted the part of the spy (eavesdropper).
17. Hail,Asti (or Anti), coming forth from Anu, I have not slandered.
18. Hail, Tutu-f, coming forth from Ati(?), I have not been angry without cause.
19.Hail, Uamenti, coming forth from the House of the Block, I have not lain with another man's wife.
20. Hail Maa-anuf, coming forth from Per-Menu, I have not abused myself.
21. Hail, Her-seru, coming forth from Nehatu, Ihave made no man to be afraid.
22. Hail, Khemi, coming forth from Ahaui, I have attacked no man.
23. Hail, Shetkheru, coming forth from Urit, I have no been a man of wrath.
24. Hail, Nekhen, coming forth from Heq-at, I have not been deaf to the words of truth.
25. Hail, Ser-Kheru, coming forth from Unes, I have not stirred up strife.
26. Hail, Basti, coming from Shetait, I have made no one weep.
27. Hail, Her-f-ha-f, (was the ferryman of the Other World. He loved ruth and hated sin, and because of his integrity, became a leader of the gods), coming forth from the place of sailing, I have neither acted impurely, nor lain with men.
28. Hail, Ta-re, coming out of the night, I have not eaten my heart.
29. Hail, Kenemti, coming forth from Kenmet, I have not cursed any man.
30. Hail, An-hetep-f, coming forth from Sau, I have not done deeds of violence.
31. Hail,Nebheru, coming forth from Tchefet, I have not acted hastily.
32. Hail, Serekhi, coming forth form Unth, I have not ... my skin, I have not ... the god.
33. Hail, Neb-abui, coming forth from Sauti, I have not made loud my voice in speaking.
34. Hail, Nefer-Tem, coming forth from Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis), I have not acted deceitfully, I have not acted wickedly.
35. Hail, Tem-sep, coming forth from Tetu, I have not cursed the king.
36. Hail, Ari-em-ab-f, coming forth from Tebti, I have not fouled water.
37. Hail, Ahi, ..., coming forth from Nu, I have not made my voice loud.
38. Hail, Utu-rekhit, coming forth from they house, I have not dursed the god.
39. Hail, Neheb,-nefert, coming forth from ..., I have not acted insolently.
40. Hail, Neheb-kau, coming forth from [thy] city, I have not worked for honors.
41. Hail, Tcheser-tep, coming forth from the carven, I have not increased my possessions except through my own goods.
42. Hail, An-a-f, coming forth from Auker, I have not treated with contempt the god of my city.


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